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Senyuta Iryna Yaroslavivna

DOI: https://doi.org/10.25040/medicallaw2016.02.074

Med. pravo., 2016; 2(18): 74-92

UDC: 347 : 616–08(477)

SENYUTA IRYNA YAROSLAVIVNA

candidate of legal sciences, associate professor, head of the Department of medical law of the Faculty of post-graduate education of the Danylo Halytskyi Lviv National Medical University, president of the All-Ukrainian NGO “Foundation of Medical Law and Bioethics of Ukraine”, chief editor of the scientific and practical journal “Medical law”, member of WAML and EAHL.

Genesis of the National Civil Law Thought on Relations in the Sphere of Medical Care Provision and It’s Current State

Reforming of the national health care system, development of new medical technologies, harmonization of the national laws with the EU laws as well as disappointing statistics in terms of the quantity of human rights in patient care violations and many other factors predetermine the necessity to conduct special complex scientific research of the legal relations in the sphere of medical care provision. At the same time, researching of any legal phenomenon is impossible without clarifying main stages of the development of the scientific thought on a certain issue. The aim of this article is to research a genesis of the national civil law science concerning the relations in the sphere of medical care provision as well clarifying the main features, which characterize its contemporary state. Main tasks of article 1) elucidate main stages of the civil law science development in terms of legal nature of the legal relations in the sphere of medical care provision; 2) analyze current state of the scientific researches of the legal relations in the sphere of medical care provision; 3) Outline the main scientific problems of the legal relations in the sphere of medical care provision, which were the subject of scientific research of the civil law scholars; 4) analyze basic principles of understanding the legal relations in the sphere of medical care provision; 5) elucidate main scientific problems in the sphere of medical care provision, which require further scientific research. The list of scientific methods that were used, includes both general scientific and special methods in particular: dialectic method, historic-legal method, systemic and formal-legal method.

Generally the development of the national civil law science is divided into three main periods: 1) pre-revolutionary period; 2) soviet period and 3) contemporary period. It should be noted that civil-law scholars did not conduct a comprehensive and complex research concerning certain segments of the relations in the sphere of medical care provision. In this article the doctrinal achievements of each period were grouped by key issues of the relations in the sphere of medical care provision, which were the subject of scientific research. Analysis of the scientific sources gives reasons to say that at the pre-revolutionary level legal relations in the sphere of medical care provision did not comprise the sphere of interest of the civil-law scholars. At the same time the issues of the legal relations in the sphere of medical care provision were researched during the soviet period, in particular in the context of legal liability for improper medical care provision, legal status of medical professionals and legal issue of deontology. Among the scholars of this period the following should be distinguished: L. Bedrin, O Gromova, S, Gurvich, A. Zagriadska, I. Kupova, O. Mykhailova, A. Savytska, V. Sukhoverkhyi, G. Tsaregorodceva, I. Shamova, P. Shyrynskyi and others. During this period the main scientific concepts of the legal relations in the sphere of medical care provision were formulated.

During the late XX century several fundamental scientific works were published and were dedicated to legal regulation of the relations in the sphere of medical care provision and the main scientific concepts of the legal nature of such relations were proved. Proponents of the administrative-law concept considered that the legal relations of medical care provision by its nature are administrative and belong to the subject of administrative law. Besides this during 70-80s

of the XX century a new concept appeared and according to this concept the relations in the sphere of medical care provision belong to the subject of the social security law and medical care was considered as one of the types of social security services. Changes, which happed in the social and political life of the Soviet Union during late 80s and at the beginning of 90s of the XX century, resulted in the necessity to find new approaches to understanding and improvement of the legal regulation of the right to health care. The attitude to person, his or her life, health was changed, which resulted in the necessity to consider the legal nature of the relations in the sphere of medical care provision from another angle. Representatives of the civil-law concept, first of all V. Sukhoverkhyi, V. Oygenzight, M. Malein and A. Savytska proved that the relations in the sphere of medical care provision comprise the subject of civil-law regulation and stated that the basis of such relations is a contractual one and the contract by itself is a civil law category. Among the major scientific issues, that were researched by scholars during the soviet period the following shall be distinguished: 1) legal nature and features of the civil relations in the sphere of medical care provision; 2) grounds for the appearance of the civil relations in the sphere of medical care provision; 3) elements of the civil relations in the sphere of medical care provision; 4) civil liability for a harm, caused by improper medical care provision; 5) legal nature of medical error etc.

A contemporary state of the civil-law science development, which started since the time Ukraine proclaimed its independence can be characterized as a period of “scientific vacuum”, since during this period there wasn’t conducted any complex research of the issues of legal relations in the sphere of medical care provision. Only at the beginning of the 2000th several scientific researches, dedicated to legal relations in the sphere of medical care provision were published. Unlike the soviet period, at the contemporary stage results of scientific research were connected with the contractual regulation of medical services. The main scientific issues, that were discovered at this stage comprise the following: 1) legal nature of the relations in the sphere of medical care provision; 2) the notion and features of legal relations in the sphere of medical care provision; 4) object and subjects of the civil relations in the sphere of medical care provision; 5) peculiarities of the civil law liability for the harm, caused by improper medical care provision. Among the scholars, who have been researching various aspects of civil-law regulation of the legal relations in the sphere of medical care provision the following should be distinguished: S. Antonov, A. Herts, S. Buletsa, O. Kohanovska, O. Krylova, R. Maydanyk, H. Myronova, Z. Romovska, M. Samofal, S. Stetsenko, R. Stafanchuk, I. Venedictova, T. Volynets, T. Zavarza and others.

It is concluded that the contemporary stage of Ukraine’s development and conditions of the social life predetermine the necessity of further research of wider scope, connected with the legal regulation of relations in the sphere of medical care provision, which did not comprise the scope of scientific interest among the civil law scholars as well comparative civil law research should be intensified.

Key words: legal relations in the sphere of medical care provision, genesis of the civil-law thought, health care, civil law science, medical service.     

 

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